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Signature of Marshal Rondon (1910)

Signature of Marshal Rondon (1910)

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In 1910, Marshal Rondon signed the founding document of the first body created to protect the Indians of Brazil.

  • Typed document from the National Council for the Protection of Indians, signed by Marshal Rondon.
  • Three pages.
  • 22 cm x 33.5 cm.
  • In Portuguese.
  • No location information, ~1910.
  • Good condition, except for a small hole at the end of Rondon's signature, with no damage to the writing.
  • Unique piece.

There are three pages that establish the functioning of the National Council for the Protection of Indians and are signed by Marechal Rondon himself, its first director. The CNPI was the first Brazilian government body, together with the Indian Protection Service (SPI), specifically dedicated to indigenous policy. They were created in 1910 with the aim of protecting indigenous peoples from abuse and exploitation, and to promote the pacification and integration of these peoples into Brazilian society, avoiding violent conflicts. The Council worked on several fronts, including the demarcation of indigenous lands, health and education, seeking to ensure that indigenous rights were respected.

Rondon (1865-1958), a Brazilian Army officer who had indigenous ancestry, explored Mato Grosso and the Western Amazon Basin. He became known for his philosophy of respect and pacifism towards indigenous peoples, summarized in his motto "Die if necessary, never kill". He was the first director of the Indian Protection Service and encouraged the creation of the Xingu National Park. The Brazilian state of Rondônia was named in his honor.

The work of Rondon and the CNPI was pioneering at the time, given that previous indigenous policy was often characterized by confrontation and exploitation of indigenous people. Rondon's actions and philosophy significantly influenced subsequent indigenous policies in Brazil, although the treatment of indigenous peoples in the country continued to be a complex and challenging issue throughout the 20th and 21st centuries.

This document belonged to Roquette Pinto, who was part of the Rondon Mission and wrote a work on medicine among indigenous people in America. It is one of the first documents that demonstrate the Brazilian government's interest in the Indians, with indigenous policy becoming the responsibility of the Brazilian State and no longer of religious institutions, as had been the case since the colonial period.

Also impressive is the large and energetic signature of General Rondon, "Cândido Marechal Rondon", well aware of the importance of the Amazon forest and its native populations and determined to protect them. He is considered one of the main Brazilian heroes and patriots.

Ultimately, a unique, historic, important and extremely current document.

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